Referencing Roadmap Logo

Referencing Roadmap (Harvard)

Message posted to discussion board, newsgroup, etc.

Description: A message sent by an individual contributing to an online conversation


  • Includes messages posted to newsgroups, discussion forums and electronic mailing lists.
  • Identify the type of post (e.g. list server) after the title.

In-text citation

Format and layout:

Author's family name OR Authoring body (year)
(Author's family name OR Authoring body year)


Patterson (2009) acknowledged this in a posting on the...

...sound approach (Patterson 2009).

Reference List / Bibliography

Format and layout:

Author's family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body <email address> year, 'Title of message', type of post, Name of group, date of message, viewed date, <URL>.


Patterson, S <> 2009, 'Something's got to give', list server, National Association of Sceptics, 29 January, viewed 7 September 2012, <>.

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