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Referencing Roadmap (Harvard)

Personal Communication

Description: Any type of communication between yourself and another person/organisation


  • Types of personal communication include face-to-face conversations, group discussion, letters, faxes or other forms of personal correspondence.
  • Verify with your correspondent whether they are happy for their communications to be shared.

In-text citation

Format and layout:

There is no standard reference format for personal communications, so convey as much information (e.g. author, date of correspondence) as possible within your sentence.


As reported in private correspondence between Harper and myself on 31 October...

Reference List / Bibliography

Format and layout:

Personal communications cannot be easily recovered by readers, so do not include entries in your reference list. Describe in-text in as much detail as required, as above.



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